Reduced Scale Enclosure Testing with Low Heat Release Initial Fuel Packages

Mark A. Campbell, CFPS, SET
Wheat Ridge Fire Protection District, USA

Presented at International Symposium on Fire Investigation, 2014


The scientific method is the process in which the fire investigator, among other steps, develops a hypothesis and tests it. The 2011 NFPA 921, §20.5.1, states that “Fire testing is a tool that can provide data that compliment data collected at the fire scene (see 4.3.3), or can be used to test hypotheses (see 4.3.6). Such fire testing can range in scope from bench scale testing to full-scale recreation of the entire event.” (bold and italics added). A Full Scale Enclosure (FSE) testing of a hypothesis may be quite expensive, time consuming, and just not practical. Building and burning a Reduced Scale Enclosure (RSE) may provide insight into the various fire effects, patterns, and dynamics within the enclosure.

Previous FSE burns at Eastern Kentucky University examined the results of a low heat release rate initial fuel source and how the area of origin, based upon the fire effects and fire patterns, preserved through post flashover. This paper will discuss current research on the same concept but with the RSE (1/4 scale). Through the use of the applicable scaling laws, low heat release rate initial fuels were designed and applied to various locations on and around the furniture. The RSEs were burned two minutes post flashover. In all four test burns the areas of origin were determined based upon the collective fire effects and fire patterns. These results have demonstrated that the RSE, when applying the scaling laws appropriately, are a very useful tool for fire investigator and fire protection engineers.

Download the complete paper here.